Java Modifiers

Modifiers are keywords that you add to those definitions to change their meanings. The Java language has a wide variety of modifiers, including the following:

To use a modifier, you include its keyword in the definition of a class, method, or variable. The modifier precedes the rest of the statement, as in the following examples (Italic ones):

public class className {

// …

}

private boolean myFlag;

static final double weeks = 9.5;

protected static final int BOXWIDTH = 42;

public static void main(String[] arguments) {

// body of method

}

Access Control Modifiers:

Java provides a number of access modifiers to set access levels for classes, variables, methods and constructors. The four access levels are:

  • Visible to the package. the default. No modifiers are needed.
  • Visible to the class only (private).
  • Visible to the world (public).
  • Visible to the package and all subclasses (protected).

Non Access Modifiers:

Java provides a number of non-access modifiers to achieve many other functionality.

  • The static modifier for creating class methods and variables
  • The final modifier for finalizing the implementations of classes, methods, and variables.
  • The abstract modifier for creating abstract classes and methods.
  • The synchronized and volatile modifiers, which are used for threads.

 

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